concat SQL | concatenate in SQL - sql - sql tutorial - learn sql




 sql concat
  • String concatenation means to append one string to the end of another string.
  • SQL allows us to concatenate strings but the syntax varies according to which database system you are using.
  • Concatenation can be used to join strings from different sources including column values, literal strings, output from user defined functions or scalar sub queries etc.
  • The Concatenate function combines multiple character strings together. Each database provides its own way(s) to do this:
    1. MySQL: CONCAT( )
    2. Oracle: CONCAT( ), ||
    3. SQL Server: +

Syntax:

The syntax for CONCAT () is as follows:

CONCAT (str1, str2, str3, ...)
  • The above syntax concatenates str1, str2, str3, and any other strings together.
  • Each str can be a column name, or it can be a literal character string (meaning a sequence of characters enclosed by two single quotes), or just white space.
  • Please note the Oracle CONCAT( ) function only allows two arguments -- only two strings can be put together at a time using this function.
  • However, it is possible to concatenate more than two strings at a time in Oracle using '||'.

The syntax for using '||' to concatenate is as follows:

str1 || str2 || str3 ...

The syntax for using '+' to concatenate is as follows:

str1 + str2 + str3 ... 

Examples:

SQL concat

We use the following table for our examples.

Table Geography

Region_Name Store_Name
East Boston
East New York
West Los Angeles
West San Diego
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Example 1: Use CONCAT function to concatenate

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MySQL/Oracle:

SELECT CONCAT(Region_Name, Store_Name) FROM Geography 
                        WHERE Store_Name = 'New York';

Result:

'East New York'
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Example 2: Use '||' to concatenate

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Oracle:

SELECT Region_Name || ' ' || Store_Name FROM Geography 
                     WHERE Store_Name = 'Boston';

Result:

'East Boston'
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Example 3: Use '+' to concatenate

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SQL Server:

SELECT Region_Name + ' ' + Store_Name FROM Geography 
                     WHERE Store_Name = 'Boston';

Result:

'East Boston'

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