What is Mern Stack - How Does it Works ?




What is Mern Stack

  • MERN stack is a web development framework. It consists of MongoDB, ExpressJS, ReactJS, and NodeJS as its working components.
  • Here are the details of what each of these components is used for in developing a web application when using MERN stack:
    • M - MongoDB
    • E - ExpressJS
    • R - ReactJS
    • N - NodeJS
  • MongoDB
    • A document-oriented, No-SQL database used to store the application data.
  • NodeJS
    • The JavaScript runtime environment. It is used to run JavaScript on a machine rather than in a browser.
  • ExpressJS
    • A framework layered on top of NodeJS, used to build the backend of a site using NodeJS functions and structures.
    • Since NodeJS was not developed to make websites but rather run JavaScript on a machine, ExpressJS was developed.
  • ReactJS
    • A library created by Facebook.
    • It is used to build UI components that create the user interface of the single page web application.
Mern Stack

Mern Stack

  • The user interacts with the ReactJS UI components at the application front-end residing in the browser.
  • This frontend is served by the application backend residing in a server, through ExpressJS running on top of NodeJS.
  • Any interaction that causes a data change request is sent to the NodeJS based Express server, which grabs data from the MongoDB database if required, and returns the data to the frontend of the application, which is then presented to the user.

Use Cases of MERN

A few examples of purposes where MERN is used are:

Calendars and To-do Apps

  • A calendar or a to-do app is a rudimentary project that can tell you a lot about the mechanics of the MERN stack.
  • You can design the frontend, i.e., the interface of the calendar or to-do app using ReactJS. The data to be stored, accessed, modified, shown in the to-do app is made possible using MongoDB.

Interactive Forums

  • Another suitable use case for MERN is an interactive forum, which can be a social media platform or a website that allows users to share messages and communicate.
  • The topic of the interactive forum may or may not be predefined.

Social Media Product

  • An interactive forum is just one use of the MERN stack for social media.
  • These include ads, posts, a mini web app embedded in the social media page, etc.

Advantages of MERN Stack

  • For a smooth development of any web application or mobile app, it supports MVC (Model View Controller) architecture; the main purpose of this architecture is to separate the presentation details with the business logic.
  • It covers all the web development stages starting from front-end development to backend development with JavaScript.
  • It is an open-source framework mainly used to develop web-based or mobile applications and is supported by the community.
  • It is very fast and efficient compared to MEAN Stack and mostly suitable for small applications, whereas MEAN Stack is suitable for developing large applications.


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