XML Tutorial - Introduction to XML

Introduction of XML

Markup Language

  • A Markup language defines a set of rules that helps to format the overall content and structure of documents.
  • It uses tags to define the contents within a document.
  • It’s a human readable format which means that contains standard words and symbols rather than the programming code.

Classification of Markup Language:

Markup languages are often divided into three :

  • Structure Markup - It defines the structure of the document.
  • Stylistic Markup - It determines the presentation of the document. It integrated with text to provide text processing instructions to programs. Such text is visibly manipulated by the user.
  • Semantic Markup - It determines the contents of the document.

Some of the markup languages are:

    1. Generalized Markup Language (GML)
    2. Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
    3. HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
    4. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
     Introduction to XML

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    • GML stands for Generalized Markup Language (GML)
    • In 1969, Charles Goldfarb was leading an IBM research project. He worked together with Edward Mosher and Raymond Lorie and he invented the Generalized Markup Language (GML)
    • It is a set of macros that implement procedural based markup tag.
    • GML allows text editing, formatting, and information retrieval subsystems to share documents.


    • The Extension of GML is known as Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
    • It is a tuned version of GML.
    • SGML is considered to be the mother of all new markup language.

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    Features of SGML:

    • SGML support wide range of markup language.
    • It helps authors to create their own tags which related to their content.
    • It should have a file that contain all the rules for the language, for its interpretation.
    • Whenever a Markup language derived from SGML are called as SGML application


    • HTML Stands for Hypertext Markup Language.
    • HTML is a typical markup language used for building a web pages.
    • The word "Markup" means a language with particular syntax which instructs a Web browser to how the page needs to display.
    • HTML uses a pre-defined set of elements called tags. A group of elements which is join together to build the web page.
    • In general HTML webpage will be developed by using various technologies such as JAVASCRIPT, CSS, AJAX, JSON but HTML is the base for the Webpages, we can create webpages by using only HTML, no webpages cannot be developed without HTML.

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    Drawbacks of HTML:

    • Lack of security features will be the main drawback.
    • It takes a lot of time to created anything like a webpage.
    • It does not use dynamically because it can created only static and plain webpage.
    • It is not centralized all the pages must be modified seperately.
    • There are only Fixed tag set in HTML.
    • Presentation technology does not relate to the contents.
    • It is flat language, there is no programming construct in it.
    • HTML is not international.
    • Data interchange is not possible in HTML.
    • It doesn’t have a robust linking mechanism.
    • HTML does not have reusable capability.

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