Introduction to R - r - learn r - r programming

  • R name is based on the first letter of first name of the two R authors Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka.
robert jentleman
ross ihaka
  • In general, R is a powerful language and software environment for statistical computing which runs on several platforms.
  • These proceedings are specially written for users, it running on the Windows version, but most of the material applies to the Mac and Linux versions as well.
  • R is greatest tool for software programmers, statisticians and data miners who seeing forward for to simply manipulate and present data in compelling ways.
  • R was first created and developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in the University of Auckland New Zealand in 1993. And now R Development Core Team is developing it.

The R Language and Environment:

  • R was first created and developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Nobleman, and is now under active development by a group of statisticians called 'the R core team', with a home page at
 r programming environment
  • R was designed to be 'not unlike' the S language developed by John Chambers and others at Bell Labs.
  • A commercial version of S with additional features was developed and marketed as S-Plus by Statistical Sciences, which later became Insightful and is now TIBCO Spitfire.
  • R and S-Plus can best be viewed as two implementations of the S language.

What is R

  • "R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics."
  • "R provides a wide variety of statistical (linear and nonlinear modelling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, ...) and graphical techniques, and is highly extensible."
  • "One of R's strengths is the ease with which well-designed publication-quality plots can be produced, including mathematical symbols and formulae where needed."
 r program

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R Constant

Using External Data

  • R offers plenty of options for loading external data, including Excel, Minitab and SPSS files.
  • We have included a tutorial titled Data Import on the subject for the purpose.

R Session

  • After R is started, there is a console a waiting for input.
  • At the prompt (>), you can enter numbers and perform calculations.
> 1 + 2 
[1] 3

Variable Assignment

  • We assign values to variables with the assignment operator "=". Just typing the variable by itself at the prompt will print out the value.
  • We should note that another form of assignment operator "<-" is also in use.
> x = 1 
> x 
[1] 1


  • R functions are invoked by its name, then followed by the parenthesis, and zero or more arguments.
  • The following function c to combine three numeric values into a vector.
> c(1, 2, 3) 
[1] 1 2 3


  • All text after the pound sign "#" within the same line is considered a comment.
> 1 + 1      # this is a comment 
[1] 2

Extension Package

  • Sometimes we need additional functionality beyond those offered by the core R library.
  • In order to install an extension package, you should invoke the install.packages function at the prompt and follow the instruction.
> install.packages()

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R Database

Getting Help

  • R provides extensive documentation.
  • For example, entering ?c or help(c) at the prompt gives documentation of the function c in R.
> help(c)
  • If you are not sure about the name of the function, you can perform a fuzzy search with the apropos function.
[1] "anova"

Uses of R:

  • Social networking companies are using R to monitor their user knowledge.
  • Newspapers companies are using R to create infographics and interactive data reporting applications.
r programming technology trends

Features of R:

  • R is easy and real programming language which has been well developed, in addition to R is data analysis software.
  • R provides highly extensible graphical methods.
  • R graphical techniques for data analysis output either directly display on the computer, or can be print on paper.
  • R has an effective data handling and storage facility.
  • R is an online vibrant community.

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