# R Operators - r - learn r - r programming

- R has several operators to perform tasks including arithmetic, logical and bitwise operations.

- R has many operators to carry out different mathematical and logical operations.
- Operators in R can mainly be classified into the following categories.

## R Arithmetic Operators

- These operators are used to carry out mathematical operations like addition and multiplication. Here is a list of arithmetic operators available in R.

## Arithmetic Operators in R

Operator | Description |
---|---|

+ | Addition |

- | Subtraction |

* | Multiplication |

/ | Division |

^ | Exponent |

%% | Modulus (Remainder from division) |

%/% | Integer Division |

**Read Also**

Operator Precedence
## Example

## Types of operators

- Assignment Operator.
- Mathematical Operators.
- Relational Operators.
- Logical Operators.
- Bitwise Operators.
- Shift Operators.
- Unary Operators.
- Ternary Operator.

## R Relational Operators

- Relational operators are used to compare between values. Here is a list of relational operators available in R.

Operator | Description |
---|---|

< | Less than |

> | Greater than |

<= | Less than or equal to |

>= | Greater than or equal to |

== | Equal to |

!= | Not equal to |

## Example:

## Operation on Vectors

- The above mentioned operators work on vectors. The variables used above were in fact single element vectors.
- We can use the function c() (as in concatenate) to make vectors in R.
- All operations are carried out in element-wise fashion.

## Here is an example.

- When there is a mismatch in length (number of elements) of operand vectors, the elements in shorter one is recycled in a cyclic manner to match the length of the longer one.
- R will issue a warning if the length of the longer vector is not an integral multiple of the shorter vector.

## R Logical Operators

- Logical operators are used to carry out Boolean operations like AND, OR etc.

Operator | Description |
---|---|

! | Logical NOT |

& | Element-wise logical AND |

&& | Logical AND |

| Element-wise logical OR | Element-wise logical OR |

|| Logical OR | Logical OR |

- Operators & and | perform element-wise operation producing result having length of the longer operand.
- But && and || examines only the first element of the operands resulting into a single length logical vector.
- Zero is considered FALSE and non-zero numbers are taken as TRUE.

## Example:

## R Assignment Operators

- These operators are used to assign values to variables.

Operator | Description |
---|---|

<-, <<-, = | Leftwards assignment |

->, ->> | Rightwards assignment |

- The operators <- and = can be used, almost interchangeably, to assign to variable in the same environment.
- The <<- operator is used for assigning to variables in the parent environments (more like global assignments).
- The rightward assignments, although available are rarely used.