R Operators - r - learn r - r programming
- R has many operators to carry out different mathematical and logical operations.
- Operators in R can mainly be classified into the following categories.
R Arithmetic Operators
- These operators are used to carry out mathematical operations like addition and multiplication. Here is a list of arithmetic operators available in R.
Arithmetic Operators in R
|%%||Modulus (Remainder from division)|
Read AlsoOperator Precedence
Types of operators
R Relational Operators
- Relational operators are used to compare between values. Here is a list of relational operators available in R.
|<=||Less than or equal to|
|>=||Greater than or equal to|
|!=||Not equal to|
Operation on Vectors
- The above mentioned operators work on vectors. The variables used above were in fact single element vectors.
- We can use the function c() (as in concatenate) to make vectors in R.
- All operations are carried out in element-wise fashion.
Here is an example.
- When there is a mismatch in length (number of elements) of operand vectors, the elements in shorter one is recycled in a cyclic manner to match the length of the longer one.
- R will issue a warning if the length of the longer vector is not an integral multiple of the shorter vector.
R Logical Operators
- Logical operators are used to carry out Boolean operations like AND, OR etc.
|&||Element-wise logical AND|
|| Element-wise logical OR||Element-wise logical OR|
||| Logical OR||Logical OR|
- Operators & and | perform element-wise operation producing result having length of the longer operand.
- But && and || examines only the first element of the operands resulting into a single length logical vector.
- Zero is considered FALSE and non-zero numbers are taken as TRUE.
R Assignment Operators
- These operators are used to assign values to variables.
|<-, <<-, =||Leftwards assignment|
|->, ->>||Rightwards assignment|
- The operators <- and = can be used, almost interchangeably, to assign to variable in the same environment.
- The <<- operator is used for assigning to variables in the parent environments (more like global assignments).
- The rightward assignments, although available are rarely used.