# R Operators - r - learn r - r programming • R has many operators to carry out different mathematical and logical operations.
• Operators in R can mainly be classified into the following categories.

## R Arithmetic Operators

• These operators are used to carry out mathematical operations like addition and multiplication. Here is a list of arithmetic operators available in R. ## Arithmetic Operators in R

Operator Description
+ Addition
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Division
^ Exponent
%% Modulus (Remainder from division)
%/% Integer Division

#### Read Also

Operator Precedence

## Example ## R Relational Operators

• Relational operators are used to compare between values. Here is a list of relational operators available in R.
Operator Description
< Less than
> Greater than
<= Less than or equal to
>= Greater than or equal to
== Equal to
!= Not equal to

## Operation on Vectors

• The above mentioned operators work on vectors. The variables used above were in fact single element vectors.
• We can use the function c() (as in concatenate) to make vectors in R.
• All operations are carried out in element-wise fashion.

## Here is an example.

• When there is a mismatch in length (number of elements) of operand vectors, the elements in shorter one is recycled in a cyclic manner to match the length of the longer one.
• R will issue a warning if the length of the longer vector is not an integral multiple of the shorter vector.

#### Read Also

Increment and Decrement Operators in Python

## R Logical Operators

• Logical operators are used to carry out Boolean operations like AND, OR etc.
Operator Description
! Logical NOT
& Element-wise logical AND
&& Logical AND
| Element-wise logical OR Element-wise logical OR
|| Logical OR Logical OR
• Operators & and | perform element-wise operation producing result having length of the longer operand.
• But && and || examines only the first element of the operands resulting into a single length logical vector.
• Zero is considered FALSE and non-zero numbers are taken as TRUE.

## R Assignment Operators

• These operators are used to assign values to variables.
Operator Description
<-, <<-, = Leftwards assignment
->, ->> Rightwards assignment
• The operators <- and = can be used, almost interchangeably, to assign to variable in the same environment.
• The <<- operator is used for assigning to variables in the parent environments (more like global assignments).
• The rightward assignments, although available are rarely used.