# Operator Precedence | R Operator Precedence and Associativity - r - learn r - r programming

## Operator Precedence

- When multiple operators are used in a single expression, we need to know the precedence of these operators to figure out the sequence of operation that will take place.
- Precedence defines the order of execution, i.e., which operator gets the higher priority.

## Example 1: Operator Precedence in R

- Here, the * operator gets higher priority than + and hence 3 + 7 * 6 is interpreted as 3 + (7 * 6).
- This order can be changed with the use of parentheses ().

## Operator Associativity

- It is possible to have multiple operators of same precedence in an expression. In such case the order of execution is determined through associativity.
- The associativity of operators is given in the table above.
- We can see that most of them have left to right associativity.

## Example 2: Operator Associativity in R

- In the above example, 5 / 6 / 7is evaluated as (5 / 6) / 7 due to left to right associativity of the / operator. However, this order too can be changed using parentheses ().

## Precedence and Associativity of different operators in R from highest to lowest

Operator | Description | Associativity |
---|---|---|

^ | Exponent | Right to Left |

-x, +x | Unary minus, Unary plus | Left to Right |

%% | Modulus | Left to Right |

*, / | Multiplication, Division | Left to Right |

+, - | Addition, Subtraction | Left to Right |

<, >, <=, >=, ==, != | Comparisions | Left to Right |

! | Logical NOT | Left to Right |

&, && | Logical AND | Left to Right |

|, || | Logical OR | Left to Right |

->, ->> | Rightward assignment | Left to Right |

<-, <<- | Leftward assignment | Right to Left |

= | Leftward assignment | Right to Left |