What is Cyber Security ?
What is Cyber Security ?
- Cyber security or information technology security refers to a set of techniques used to protect the integrity of networks, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access that are aimed for exploitation.
- In a computing context, security comprises cybersecurity and physical security both are used by enterprises to protect against unauthorized access to data centers and other computerized systems.
- Information security, which is designed to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data, is a subset of cybersecurity.
Elements of cybersecurity
- Ensuring cybersecurity requires the coordination of efforts throughout an information system, which includes:
- Network security
- Application security
- Endpoint security
- Data security
- Identity management
- Database and infrastructure security
- Cloud security
- Mobile security
- Disaster recovery/business continuity planning
- End-user education
- The most difficult challenge in cyber security is the ever-evolving nature of security risks themselves.
- The traditional approach has been to focus resources on crucial system components and protect against the biggest known threats, which meant leaving components undefended and not protecting systems against less dangerous risks.
- Today, this approach is insufficient, as the threats advance and change more quickly than organizations can keep up with. As a result, advisory organizations promote more proactive and adaptive approaches to cyber security.
Information Risk Management
The core functionality of cybersecurity involves protecting information and systems from major cyberthreats. These cyberthreats take many forms :
- Ransomware is a type of malware that involves an attacker locking the victim's computer system files -- typically through encryption -- and demanding a payment to decrypt and unlock them.
- Malware is any file or program used to harm a computer user, such as worms, computer viruses, Trojan horses and spyware.
- Social engineering is an attack that relies on human interaction to trick users into breaking security procedures in order to gain sensitive information that is typically protected.
- Phishing is a form of fraud where fraudulent emails are sent that resemble emails from reputable sources; however, the intention of these emails is to steal sensitive data, such as credit card or login information.
- cyberterrorism is the disruptive use of information technology by terrorist groups to further their ideological or political agenda.
- It takes the form of attacks on networks, computer systems and telecommunication infrastructures.
- Cyberwarfare involves nation-states using information technology to penetrate another nation’s networks to cause damage or disruption.
- In the U.S. and many other nations, cyberwarfare has been acknowledged as the fifth domain of warfare (following land, sea, air and space).
- Cyberwarfare attacks are primarily executed by hackers who are well-trained in exploiting the intricacies of computer networks, and operate under the auspices and support of nation-states.
- Rather than “shutting down” a target’s key networks, a cyberwarfare attack may intrude into networks to compromise valuable data, degrade communications, impair such infrastructural services as transportation and medical services, or interrupt commerce.
- Cyberespionage is the practice of using information technology to obtain secret information without permission from its owners or holders.
- Cyberespionage is most often used to gain strategic, economic, political or military advantage, and is conducted using cracking techniques and malware.