C++ Basics | Structure of a program - Learn C++ , C++ Tutorial , C++ programming




Basics Of C++

  • A computer program is a sequence of instructions that tell the computer what to do.
  • The most common type of instruction in a program is the statement.
  • A statement in C++ is the smallest independent unit in the language.
  • In human language, it is analogous to a sentence. We write sentences in order to convey an idea.
  • In C++, we write statements in order to convey to the compiler that we want to perform a task. Statements in C++ are often terminated by a semicolon.
  • Before starting the abcd of C++ language, you need to learn how to write, compile and run the first C++ program.
  • To write the first C++ program, open the C++ console and write the following code:
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#include <iostream.h>  
#include<conio.h>  

void main() 
{  
   clrscr();  
   cout << "Welcome to C++ Programming.";   
   getch();  

}  
  • #include<iostream.h> includes the standard input output library functions. It provides cin and cout methods for reading from input and writing to output respectively.
  • #include includes the console input output library functions. The getch() function is defined in conio.h file.
  • Those are special type of statement called a preprocessor directive. Preprocessor directives tell the compiler to perform a special task.
  • In this case, we are telling the compiler that we would like to add the contents of the iostream header to our program.
  • The iostream header allows us to access functionality from the iostream library, which will allow us to write text to the screen.
  • The 3rd line is blank, and is ignored by the compiler.
  • void main() The main() function is the entry point of every program in C++ language.
  • The void keyword specifies that it returns no value. declares the main() function, which as you learned above, is mandatory. Every program must have a main() function.
  • The 5th and 9th line of the code explains tell the compiler which lines are part of the main function.
  • Everything between the opening curly brace on line 4 and the closing curly brace on line 7 is considered part of the main() function.
  • cout << "Welcome to C++ Programming." is used to print the data "Welcome to C++ Programming." on the console.
  • getch() The getch() function asks for a single character. Until you press any key, it blocks the screen.
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