Operator C++ | Operators and its operations - Learn C++ , C++ Tutorial , C++ programming




What is C++ Operator?

  • An operator is a symbol that expresses the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations.
  • learn c++ tutorials - operators

    learn c++ tutorials - operators Example

  • C++ is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators:
    • Arithmetic Operators
    • Relational Operators
    • Logical Operators
    • Bitwise Operators
    • Assignment Operators
    • Misc Operators
  • This chapter will show the arithmetic, relational, logical, bitwise, assignment and other operators one by one
 c++ operators
Learn C++ , C++ Tutorial , C++ programming - C++ Language -Cplusplus

Arithmetic Operators

  • It provides operators for five basic arithmetic calculations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and taking the modulus.
  • Each of these operators uses two values (called operands) to calculate a final answer.
  • learn c++ tutorials - operators-operands

    learn c++ tutorials - operators-operands Example

  • There are following arithmetic operators supported by C++ language:

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
+ Adds two operands A + B will give 30
- Subtracts second operand from the first A - B will give -10
* Multiplies both operandstd A * B will give 200
/ Divides numerator by de-numerator B / A will give 2
% Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division B % A will give 0
++ Increment operator, increases integer value by one A++ will give 11
-- Decrement operator, decreases integer value by one A-- will give 9

Relational Operators

  • A relational operator is a programming language construct oroperator that tests or defines some kind of relation between two entities.
  • These include numerical equality (e.g., 5 = 5) and inequalities (e.g., 4 ≥ 3)
  • There are following relational operators supported by C++ language

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then:

Learn C++ , C++ Tutorial , C++ programming - C++ Language -Cplusplus

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
== Checks if the values of two operands
are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true.
(A == B) is not true.
!= Checks if the values of two operands are equal or
not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true.
(A != B) is true.
> Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the
value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
(A > B) is not true.
< Checks if the value of left operand is less than the
value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
(A < B) is true.
>= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or
equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
(A >= B) is not true.
<= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value
of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
(A <= B) is true.

Logical Operators

  • Logical Operators are used if we want to compare more than one condition.
  • Depending upon the requirement, proper logical operator is used.
  • There are following logical operators supported by C++ language

Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0, then:

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
&& Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A && B) is false.
>|| Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A || B) is true.
! Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the
logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make false.
!(A && B) is true.

Bitwise Operators

  • Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation.
  • The truth tables for &, |, and ^ are as follows:
p q p & q p | q p ^ q
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 1 1

Assume if A = 60; and B = 13; now in binary format they will be as follows:

A = 0011 1100
B = 0000 1101
-----------------
A&B = 0000 1100
A|B = 0011 1101
A^B = 0011 0001
~A  = 1100 0011
  • The Bitwise operators supported by C++ language are listed in the following table. Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13, then:
Learn C++ , C++ Tutorial , C++ programming - C++ Language -Cplusplus

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the
result if it exists in both operands.
(A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100
| Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it
exists in either operand.
(A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101
^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit
if it is set in one operand but not both.
(A ^ B) will give
49 which is 0011 0001
~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is
unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits.
(~A ) will give -61 which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form
due to a signed binary number.
<< Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands
value is moved left by the
number of bits specified by the left operand.
A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000
>> Binary Right Shift Operator.
The left operands value is moved
right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.
A >> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111

Assignment Operators

  • An assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name.
  • In other words, it copies a value into the variable
  • There are following assignment operators supported by C++ language:

Show Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
=Simple assignment operator, Assigns values
from right side operands to left side operand
C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C
+=Add AND assignment operator, It adds right
operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand
C += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-=Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right
operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand
C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*=Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right
operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand
C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/=Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the
right operand and assign the result to left operand
C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%=Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two
operands and assign the result to left operand
C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<=Left shift AND assignment operator C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>=Right shift AND assignment operator C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&=Bitwise AND assignment operator C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^=bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|=bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2
Learn C++ , C++ Tutorial , C++ programming - C++ Language -Cplusplus

Misc Operators

  • There are few other operators supported by C++ Language.
OperatorDescription
sizeofsizeof operator returns the size of a variable. For example, sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4.
Condition ? X : YConditional operator. If Condition is true ? then it returns value X : otherwise value Y
,Comma operator causes a sequence of operations to be performed. The value of the entire comma expression is the value of the last expression of the comma-separated list.
. (dot) and -> (arrow)Member operators are used to reference individual members of classes, structures, and unions.
CastCasting operators convert one data type to another. For example, int(2.2000) would return 2.
&Pointer operator & returns the address of an variable. For example &a; will give actual address of the variable.
*Pointer operator * is pointer to a variable. For example *var; will pointer to a variable var.

Operators Precedence in C++

  • Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression.
  • This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others;
  • learn c++ tutorials - operator precedence in c++

    learn c++ tutorials - operator precedence in c++ Example

  • for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator:
  • For example x = 7 + 3 * 2; here, x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than +, so it first gets multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7.
  • Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first.

Show Examples

Category  Operator Associativity 
Postfix () [] -> . ++ - -   Left to right 
Unary  + - ! ~ ++ - - (type)* & sizeof  Right to left 
Multiplicative   * / % Left to right 
Additive  + -  Left to right 
Shift   << >>  Left to right 
Relational  < <= > >=  Left to right 
Equality   == !=  Left to right 
Bitwise AND  Left to right 
Bitwise XOR  Left to right 
Bitwise OR  Left to right 
Logical AND &&  Left to right 
Logical OR  ||  Left to right 
Conditional ?:  Right to left 
Assignment  = += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |= Right to left 
Comma  Left to right 

Related Searches to Operator C++ | Operators and its operations