C Programming - Babylonian method for square root - Mathematical Algorithms - If we are sure that n is a perfect square, then we can use following method.

**1.Algorithm:**

This method can be derived from (but predates) Newton – Raphson method.

1 Start with an arbitrary positive start value x (the closer to the

root, the better).

2 Initialize y = 1.

3. Do following until desired approximation is achieved.

a) Get the next approximation for root using average of x and y

b) Set y = n/x

**2.Implementation:**

C

```
/*Returns the square root of n. Note that the function */
float squareRoot(float n)
{
/*We are using n itself as initial approximation
This can definitely be improved */
float x = n;
float y = 1;
float e = 0.000001; /* e decides the accuracy level*/
while(x - y > e)
{
x = (x + y)/2;
y = n/x;
}
return x;
}
/* Driver program to test above function*/
int main()
{
int n = 50;
printf ("Square root of %d is %f", n, squareRoot(n));
getchar();
}
```

**Example:**

n = 4 /*n itself is used for initial approximation*/
Initialize x = 4, y = 1
Next Approximation x = (x + y)/2 (= 2.500000),
y = n/x (=1.600000)
Next Approximation x = 2.050000,
y = 1.951220
Next Approximation x = 2.000610,
y = 1.999390
Next Approximation x = 2.000000,
y = 2.000000
Terminate as (x - y) > e now.

If we are sure that n is a perfect square, then we can use following method. The method can go in infinite loop for non-perfect-square numbers. For example, for 3 the below while loop will never terminate.

C program

```
/*Returns the square root of n. Note that the function
will not work for numbers which are not perfect squares*/
unsigned int squareRoot(int n)
{
int x = n;
int y = 1;
while(x > y)
{
x = (x + y)/2;
y = n/x;
}
return x;
}
/* Driver program to test above function*/
int main()
{
int n = 49;
printf (" root of %d is %d", n, squareRoot(n));
getchar();
}
```

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