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Video Full Form

 Video

Video

  • Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.
  • Video was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) systems which were later replaced by flat panel displays of several types.
  • Video systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities.
  • Analog and digital variants exist and may be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, magnetic tape, optical discs, computer files, and network streaming.

History

Analog video

  • Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) television systems, but several new technologies for display screen devices have since been invented.
  • Video was originally exclusively a live technology. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one among the first practical Video Tape Recorder (VTR).
  • In 1951 the first video tapes machine captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera's electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape.
  • Video recorders were sold for US$50,000 in 1956, and videotapes cost US$300 per one-hour reel. However, prices gradually dropped over the years in 1971, Sony began selling Videocassette Recorder (VCR) decks and tapes into the consumer market.

Digital video

  • The use of digital techniques in video created digital video. It couldn't initially compete with analog video, due to early digital uncompressed video requiring impractically high bitrates.
  • Practical digital video was made possible with discrete cosine transform (DCT) coding, a lossy compression process developed within the early 1970s.
  • DCT coding was adapted into motion-compensated DCT video compression within the late 1980s, starting with H.261, the first practical digital video coding standard.
  • Digital video was capable of upper quality and, eventually, much lower cost than earlier analog technology. After the invention of the DVD in 1997, and later the Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape and recording equipment plummeted. Advances in technology allows even inexpensive personal computers and smart phones to capture, store, edit and transmit digital video, further reducing the value of video production, allowing program-makers and broadcasters to move to tapeless production.
  • The arrival of digital broadcasting and the following digital television transition is within the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world.
  • As of 2015, with the increasing use of high-resolution video cameras with improved dynamic range and color gamuts, and high-dynamic-range digital intermediate data formats with improved color depth, modern digital video technology is converging with digital film technology.

Characteristics of video streams

  • Number of frames per second - Frame rate, the amount of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (frame/s) for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras.
  • Aspect Ratio - Aspect ratio describes the proportional relationship between the width and height of video screens and video picture elements.
  • Color model and depth - The color model the video color representation and maps encoded color values to visible colors reproduced by the system. There are several such representations in common use: typically YIQ is used in NTSC television, YUV is used in PAL television, YDbDr is used by SECAM television and YCbCr is used for digital video.
  • Video quality


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