C++ programming Coding Data Structures Stack

Cpp Algorithm – The Stock Span Problem

C++ Algorithm - The Stock Span Problem - Stack - The stock span problem is a financial problem where we have a series of n daily price quotes

The stock span problem is a financial problem where we have a series of n daily price quotes for a stock and we need to calculate span of stock’s price for all n days.
The span Si of the stock’s price on a given day i is defined as the maximum number of consecutive days just before the given day, for which the price of the stock on the current day is less than or equal to its price on the given day.
For example, if an array of 7 days prices is given as {100, 80, 60, 70, 60, 75, 85}, then the span values for corresponding 7 days are {1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 4, 6}

A Simple but inefficient method
Traverse the input price array. For every element being visited, traverse elements on left of it and increment the span value of it while elements on the left side are smaller.

A Linear Time Complexity Method
We see that S[i] on day i can be easily computed if we know the closest day preceding i, such that the price is greater than on that day than the price on day i. If such a day exists, let’s call it h(i), otherwise, we define h(i) = -1.
The span is now computed as S[i] = i – h(i). See the following diagram.

To implement this logic, we use a stack as an abstract data type to store the days i, h(i), h(h(i)) and so on. When we go from day i-1 to i, we pop the days when the price of the stock was less than or equal to price[i] and then push the value of day i back into the stack.

See also  Use Array Methods in Ruby

C++ Programming:

// a linear time solution for stock span problem
#include <iostream>
#include <stack>
using namespace std;
 
// A stack based efficient method to calculate stock span values
void calculateSpan(int price[], int n, int S[])
{
   // Create a stack and push index of first element to it
   stack<int> st;
   st.push(0);
 
   // Span value of first element is always 1
   S[0] = 1;
 
   // Calculate span values for rest of the elements
   for (int i = 1; i < n; i++)
   {
      // Pop elements from stack while stack is not empty and top of
      // stack is smaller than price[i]
      while (!st.empty() && price[st.top()] <= price[i])
         st.pop();
 
      // If stack becomes empty, then price[i] is greater than all elements
      // on left of it, i.e., price[0], price[1],..price[i-1].  Else price[i]
      // is greater than elements after top of stack
      S[i] = (st.empty())? (i + 1) : (i - st.top());
 
      // Push this element to stack
      st.push(i);
   }
}
 
// A utility function to print elements of array
void printArray(int arr[], int n)
{
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
      cout << arr[i] << " ";
}
 
// Driver program to test above function
int main()
{
    int price[] = {10, 4, 5, 90, 120, 80};
    int n = sizeof(price)/sizeof(price[0]);
    int S[n];
 
    // Fill the span values in array S[]
    calculateSpan(price, n, S);
 
    // print the calculated span values
    printArray(S, n);
 
    return 0;
}

Output:

1 1 2 4 5 1

Time Complexity: O(n). It seems more than O(n) at first look. If we take a closer look, we can observe that every element of array is added and removed from stack at most once. So there are total 2n operations at most. Assuming that a stack operation takes O(1) time, we can say that the time complexity is O(n).

See also  Expected Number of Trials until Success

Auxiliary Space: O(n) in worst case when all elements are sorted in decreasing order.

About the author

Venkatesan Prabu

Wikitechy Founder, Author, International Speaker, and Job Consultant. My role as the CEO of Wikitechy, I help businesses build their next generation digital platforms and help with their product innovation and growth strategy. I'm a frequent speaker at tech conferences and events.

Add Comment

Click here to post a comment