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Methods

  • Method is just a function object created by def statement.
def outside_foo():
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class method

  • If we need to use class attributes
@classmethod
def cfoo(cls,)
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static method

  • We do not have any info about the class
@staticmethod
def sfoo() 
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Instance method

  • Instance method but inner working of instance method is the same as the class method. Actually, Python automatically maps an instance method call to a class method.
instance.method(args...)
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Class Method and Instance Method

  • The method foo() is designed to process instances, we normally call the method through instance:
>>> from a import A
>>> a = A()
>>> a.foo('instance call')
instance call
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Note: that we pass the instance a as an argument of the foo() method.

1:Bound method (instance call):

  • To call the method we must provide an instance object explicitly as the first argument. In other words, a bound method object is a kind of object that remembers the self instance and the referenced function.
  • Python automatically packages the instance with the function in the bound method object, so we don't need to pass an instance to cal the method.
>>> class Callback:
...   def __init__(self, color):
...     self.color = color
...   def changeColor(self):
...     print(self.color)
... 
>>> obj = Callback('red')
>>> cb = obj.changeColor
>>> cb()
red
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2:Unbound method (class call):

  • Accessing a function attribute of a class by qualifying the class returns an unbound method object:
>>> Callback.changeColor
<unbound method Callback.changeColor>
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Note: In Puython 3.0, the notion of unbound method has been dropped, and what we describe as an unbound method here is treated as a simple function in 3.0.

Static Method

  • Static methods are used when we need to process data associated with classes instead of instances. A static method has no self argument and it is nested in a class and is designed to work on class attributes instead of instance attributes.
  • I'll use function decorator(@) for static method, and the syntax looks like this:
class S:
   @staticmethod
   def foo():
      ...
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  • Internally, the definition has the same effect as the name rebinding:
class S:
   def foo():
      ...
   foo = staticmethod(foo)
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  • Suppose we have a typical instance counting code like this:
# s.py
class S:
   nInstances = 0
   def __init__(self):
      S.nInstances = S.nInstances + 1

   @staticmethod
   def howManyInstances():
      print('Number of instances created: ', S.nInstances)
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  • Then, we make three instances:
>>> from s import S
>>> 
>>> a = S()
>>> b = S()
>>> c = S()
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  • Now that we have static method, we can call it in two ways:
    • call from class
    • call from instances
>>> S.howManyInstances()
('Number of instances created: ', 3)
>>> a.howManyInstances()
('Number of instances created: ', 3)
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Instance, static, and class methods

  • Here is a simple code that has all types of methods:
class Methods:
  def i_method(self,x):
    print(self,x)

  def s_method(x):
    print(x)

  def c_method(cls,x):
    print(cls,x)

  s_method = staticmethod(s_method)
  c_method = classmethod(c_method)

obj = Methods()

obj.i_method(1)
Methods.i_method(obj, 2)

obj.s_method(3)
Methods.s_method(4)

obj.c_method(5)
Methods.c_method(6)
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Output:

(<__main__.Methods instance at 0x7f7052d75950>, 1)
(<__main__.Methods instance at 0x7f7052d75950>, 2)
3
4
(<class __main__.Methods at 0x7f7052d6d598>, 5)
(<class __main__.Methods at 0x7f7052d6d598>, 6)

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