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Formatting Strings

  • Two flavors of string formatting:
    • string formatting expressions: this is based on the C type printf.
    • string formatting method calls: this is newer and added since Python 2.6.

String formatting by expressions

% operator

  • The % provides a compact way to code several string substitutions all at once.
>>> 'I am using %s %d.%d' %('Python', 3, 2)
'I am using Python 3.2'
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Format specification

Code Meaning
b Binary format. Outputs the number in base 2.
c Character. Converts the integer to the corresponding unicode character before printing.
d Decimal Integer. Outputs the number in base 10.
Default.
e, E Exponent notation. Prints the number in scientific notation using the letter e/E to indicate the exponent.
f, F Fixed point. Displays the number as a fixed-point number.
g

General format. For a given precision p >= 1, this rounds the number to p significant digits and then formats the result in either fixed-point format or in scientific notation, depending on its magnitude.
The precise rules are as follows: suppose that the result formatted with presentation type e and precision p-1 would have exponent exp. Then if -4 <= exp < p, the number is formatted with presentation type f and precision p-1-exp. Otherwise, the number is formatted with presentation type e and precision p-1. In both cases insignificant trailing zeros are removed from the significant, and the decimal point is also removed if there are no remaining digits following it.
Positive and negative infinity, positive and negative zero, and nans, are formatted as inf, -inf, 0, -0 and nan respectively, regardless of the precision.
A precision of 0 is treated as equivalent to a precision of 1.
Default.

G General format. Same as g except switches to E if the number gets too large. The representations of infinity and NaN are uppercased, too.
n Number. This is the same as g, except that it uses the current locale setting to insert the appropriate number separator characters.
o Octal format. Outputs the number in base 8.
s String format. This is the default type for strings and may be omitted.
x, X Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using lower/upper- case letters for the digits above 9.
% Percentage. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays in fixed (f) format, followed by a percent sign.

Syntax format

  • The example below is using left justification(-) and zero(0) fills.
>>> n = 6789
>>> a = "...%d...%-6d...%06d" %(n, n, n)
>>> a
'...6789...6789  ...006789'
>>>
>>> m = 9.876543210
>>> '%e | %E | %f | %g' %(m, m, m, m)
'9.876543e+00 | 9.876543E+00 | 9.876543 | 9.87654'
>>> 
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  • For floating point number, in the following example, we're using left justification, zero padding, numeric + signs, field width, and digits after the decimal point.
>>> '%6.2f | %05.2f | %+06.1f' %(m, m, m)
'  9.88 | 09.88 | +009.9'
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  • We can simply convert them to string using a format expression or str built-in function:
>>> '%s' % m, str(m)
('9.87654321', '9.87654321')
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  • In case when the sizes are unknown until runtime, we can have the width and precision computed by specifying them with a * in the format string to force their values to be taken from the next item in the inputs to the right of the %. In the example, the 4 in the tuple gives precision:
>>> '%f, %.3f, %.*f' % (9.87654321, 9.87654321, 4, 9.87654321)
'9.876543, 9.877, 9.8765'
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In Python a string of required formatting can be achieved by different methods.

access index for loop

Some of them are ;
1) Using %
2) Using {}
3) Using Template Strings

accessing argument by position

In this article the formatting using % is discussed.

accessing arguments by name

The formatting using % is similar to that of ‘printf’ in C programming language.
%d – integer
%f – float
%s – string
%x – hexadecimal
%o – octal

python format positional argument

The below example describes the use of formatting using % in Python

string modulo overview


Python - formatting strings

python - Sample - python code :

# Python program to demonstrate the use of formatting using %
  
# Initialize variable as a string
variable = '15'
string = "Variable as string = %s" %(variable)
print string
  
# Printing as raw data
# Thanks to Himanshu Pant for this
print "Variable as raw data = %r" %(variable)
  
# Convert the variable to integer
# And perform check other formatting options
  
variable = int(variable) # Without this the below statement
                        # will give error.
string = "Variable as integer = %d" %(variable)
print string
print "Variable as float = %f" %(variable)
Python - formatting strings 2

python programming - Output :

Variable as string = 15
Variable as raw data = '15'
Variable as integer = 15
Variable as float = 15.000000
Variable as printing with special char = mayank
Variable as hexadecimal = f
Variable as octal = 17

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