python tutorial - Python Random | Random Numbers in Python - learn python - python programming




Python defines a set of functions that are used to generate or manipulate random numbers. This particular type of functions are used in a lot of games, lotteries or any application requiring random number generation.

Randon Number Operations :

1. choice() :- This function is used to generate 1 random number from a container.

2. randrange(beg, end, step) :- This function is also used to generate random number but within a range specified in its arguments. This function takes 3 arguments, beginning number (included in generation), last number (excluded in generation) and step ( to skip numbers in range while selecting).

python - Sample - python code :

# Python code to demonstrate the working of
# choice() and randrange()
  
# importing "random" for random operations
import random
 
# using choice() to generate a random number from a 
# given list of numbers.
print ("A random number from list is : ",end="")
print (random.choice([1, 4, 8, 10, 3]))
 
# using randrange() to generate in range from 20
# to 50. The last parameter 3 is step size to skip
# three numbers when selecting.
print ("A random number from range is : ",end="")
print (random.randrange(20, 50, 3))

python tutorial - Output :

A random number from list is : 4
A random number from range is : 41

3. random() :- This number is used to generate a float random number less than 1 and greater or equal to 0.

4. seed() :- This function maps a particular random number with the seed argument mentioned. All random numbers called after the seeded value returns the mapped number.

python - Sample - python code :

# Python code to demonstrate the working of
# random() and seed()
  
# importing "random" for random operations
import random
 
# using random() to generate a random number
# between 0 and 1
print ("A random number between 0 and 1 is : ", end="")
print (random.random())
 
# using seed() to seed a random number
random.seed(5)
 
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 5 is : ", end="")
print (random.random())
 
# using seed() to seed different random number
random.seed(7)
 
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 7 is : ", end="")
print (random.random())
 
# using seed() to seed to 5 again
random.seed(5)
 
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 5 is : ",end="")
print (random.random())
 
# using seed() to seed to 7 again 
random.seed(7)
 
# printing mapped random number
print ("The mapped random number with 7 is : ",end="")
print (random.random())

python tutorial - Output :

A random number between 0 and 1 is : 0.510721762520941
The mapped random number with 5 is : 0.6229016948897019
The mapped random number with 7 is : 0.32383276483316237
The mapped random number with 5 is : 0.6229016948897019
The mapped random number with 7 is : 0.32383276483316237

5. shuffle() :- This function is used to shuffle the entire list to randomly arrange them.

6. uniform(a, b) :- This function is used to generate a floating point random number between the numbers mentioned in its arguments. It takes two arguments, lower limit(included in generation) and upper limit(not included in generation).

python - Sample - python code :

# Python code to demonstrate the working of
# shuffle() and uniform()
  
# importing "random" for random operations
import random
 
# Initializing list 
li = [1, 4, 5, 10, 2]
 
# Printing list before shuffling
print ("The list before shuffling is : ", end="")
for i in range(0, len(li)):
    print (li[i], end=" ")
print("\r")
 
# using shuffle() to shuffle the list
random.shuffle(li)
 
# Printing list after shuffling
print ("The list after shuffling is : ", end="")
for i in range(0, len(li)):
    print (li[i], end=" ")
print("\r")
 
# using uniform() to generate random floating number in range
# prints number between 5 and 10
print ("The random floating point number between 5 and 10 is : ",end="")
print (random.uniform(5,10))

python tutorial - Output :

The list before shuffling is : 1 4 5 10 2 
The list after shuffling is : 2 1 4 5 10 
The random floating point number between 5 and 10 is : 5.183697823553464


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