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What is Python OOPs Concepts?

  • Python is called an "object-oriented programming language".
  • You can easily create and use classes and objects in Python.
  • This means there is a construct in Python called a class that lets you structure your software in a particular way.
  • Using classes, you can add consistency to your programs so that they can be used in a cleaner way. At least that's the theory.
  • Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs.
 object oriented programming features
  • Major principles of object-oriented programming system are given below:
    • Object
    • Class
    • Method
    • Inheritance
    • Polymorphism
    • Data Abstraction
    • Encapsulation

Object

  • Object is an entity that has state and behavior.
  • It may be anything.
  • It may be physical and logical.
  • For example: mouse, keyboard, chair, table, pen etc.
  • Everything in Python is an object, and almost everything has attributes and methods.
  • All functions have a built-in attribute __doc__, which returns the doc string defined in the function source code.

Class

  • Class can be defined as a collection of objects.
  • It is a logical entity that has some specific attributes and methods.
  • For example: if you have an employee class then it should contain an attribute and method i.e. an email id, name, age, salary etc.

Syntax:

class ClassName:  
    <statement-1>  
	   .  
	   .  
	   .  
    <statement-N>

Method

  • Method is a function that is associated with an object.
  • In Python, method is not unique to class instances.
  • Any object type can have methods.

Inheritance

  • Inheritance is a feature of object-oriented programming.
  • It specifies that one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of parent object.
  • By using inheritance, you can define a new class with a little or no changes to the existing class.
  • The new class is known as derived class or child class and from which it inherits the properties is called base class or parent class.
  • It provides re-usability of the code.

Polymorphism

  • Polymorphism is made by two words "poly" and "morphs".
  • Poly means many and Morphs means form, shape.
  • It defines that one task can be performed in different ways.
  • For example: You have a class animal and all animals talk. But they talk differently.
  • Here, the "talk" behavior is polymorphic in the sense and totally depends on the animal.
  • So, the abstract "animal" concept does not actually "talk", but specific animals (like dogs and cats) have a concrete implementation of the action "talk".

Encapsulation

  • Encapsulation is also the feature of object-oriented programming.
  • It is used to restrict access to methods and variables.
  • In encapsulation, code and data are wrapped together within a single unit from being modified by accident.

Data Abstraction

  • Data abstraction and encapsulation both are often used as synonyms.
  • Both are nearly synonym because data abstraction is achieved through encapsulation.
  • Abstraction is used to hide internal details and show only functionalities.
  • Abstracting something means to give names to things, so that the name captures the core of what a function or a whole program does.

Object-oriented vs Procedure-oriented Programming languages

Index Object-oriented Programming Procedural Programming
1. Object-oriented programming is an
approach to problem solving where
computation is done by using objects.
Procedural programming uses a list of instructions to do computation step by step.
2. It makes development and maintenance
easier.
In procedural programming, it is not easy to maintain the codes when project becomes lengthy.
3. It simulates the real-world entity. So,
real world problems can be easily
solved through oops.
It doesn't simulate the real world. It works on step by step instructions divided in small parts called functions.
4. It provides data hiding. so, it is more secure
than procedural languages. You cannot
access private data from anywhere.
Procedural language doesn't provide any proper way for data binding so it is less secure.
5. Example of object-oriented programming
languages are: C++, Java, .Net, Python, C# etc.
Example of procedural languages are: C, Fortran, Pascal, VB etc.

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