Delegates in C# - c# - c# tutorial - c# net



What is Delegates in C#?

  • Delegates in C# are similar to function or pointers which are given in C or C++
  • Hence this is said to be a reference type variable which can be defined as per how to hold the reference to a method
  • The reference in C# can be changed only at runtime and it cannot be changed at compile time.
  • They are used specifically for implementing events and they are also used for call-back methods.
  • System.Delegate class is used to implicitly derived all delegates in C#
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Declaring Delegates

  • This delegate declaration determines the method which can be referenced by the delegate in C#
  • Declaring Delegates can be refer to a method which can have the same signature as a delegate in C#
  • Here is an example as per how to declare a delegate

Example:

public delegate int MyDelegate (string s);
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Description of the Example:

  • The delegate which is given in the example can be used to reference any method which can return a int type variable and also has a single string parameter

Syntax:

delegate <return type> <delegate-name> <parameter list>
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Instantiating Delegates

  • After the delegate is declared, the delegate object should be created with a new keyword and also it should be associated with a particular method in C#
  • The argument is passed to the new expression which is similarly written to a method call, but it is done without arguments to the method
  • Here is an example to instantiate delegate:

Example:

public delegate void printString(string s);
...
printString ps1 = new printString(WriteToScreen);
printString ps2 = new printString(WriteToFile);
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Description of the program:

  • The program which is given below is a program which demonstrates declaration and instantiation of a delegate.
  • This program is used for reference methods which takes an integer parameter and it returns an integer value

Program:

using System;
delegate int NumberChanger(int n);
namespace DelegateAppl
{
   class TestDelegate
   {
      static int num = 10;
      public static int AddNum(int p)
      {
         num += p;
         return num;
      }

      public static int MultNum(int q)
      {
         num *= q;
         return num;
      }
      public static int getNum()
      {
         return num;
      }

      static void Main(string[] args)
      {
         //create delegate instances
         NumberChanger nc1 = new NumberChanger(AddNum);
         NumberChanger nc2 = new NumberChanger(MultNum);
         
         //calling the methods using the delegate objects
         nc1(25);
         Console.WriteLine("Value of Num: {0}", getNum());
         nc2(5);
         Console.WriteLine("Value of Num: {0}", getNum());
         Console.ReadKey();
      }
   }
}
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Output:

Value of Num: 35
Value of Num: 175

Multicasting of a Delegate

  • Here are the properties of delegates which are used to invoke a delegate by using invocation list of methods which are used in delegates.
  • Delegate objects are objects which can be composed by using the "+" operator in C#
  • Delegate calls are composed and it can call two delegates where the two delegates are composed.
  • Delegates of the same type can be composed while delegates of different type cannot be composed
  • There is a way to remove a component delegate from a composed delegate and this can be using the "-" operator
  • This method which is used to invoke a delegate by using invocation list of methods and also by using the properties of delegates is known as multicasting of a delegate.
  • The program which is given below show us the demonstration of a delegate

Program:

using System;

delegate int NumberChanger(int n);
namespace DelegateAppl
{
   class TestDelegate
   {
      static int num = 10;
      public static int AddNum(int p)
      {
         num += p;
         return num;
      }

      public static int MultNum(int q)
      {
         num *= q;
         return num;
      }
      
      public static int getNum()
      {
         return num;
      }

      static void Main(string[] args)
      {
         //create delegate instances
         NumberChanger nc;
         NumberChanger nc1 = new NumberChanger(AddNum);
         NumberChanger nc2 = new NumberChanger(MultNum);
         nc = nc1;
         nc += nc2;
         
         //calling multicast
         nc(5);
         Console.WriteLine("Value of Num: {0}", getNum());
         Console.ReadKey();
      }
   }
}
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Output:

Value of Num: 75

Use of a Delegate

  • It can be used to reference methods which return nothing and takes string as input and this can be used for delegate printString
  • Hence we used this delegate printString to call two methods and hence they are
  • The first method is used to print the string to the console
  • The second method prints to the file
  • The program which is given us demonstrate the use of delegate

Program:

using System;
using System.IO;

namespace DelegateAppl
{
   class PrintString
   {
      static FileStream fs;
      static StreamWriter sw;
      
      // delegate declaration
      public delegate void printString(string s);

      // this method prints to the console
      public static void WriteToScreen(string str)
      {
         Console.WriteLine("The String is: {0}", str);
      }
      
      //this method prints to a file
      public static void WriteToFile(string s)
      {
         fs = new FileStream("c:\\message.txt",
         FileMode.Append, FileAccess.Write);
         sw = new StreamWriter(fs);
         sw.WriteLine(s);
         sw.Flush();
         sw.Close();
         fs.Close();
      }
      
      // this method takes the delegate as parameter and uses it to
      // call the methods as required
      public static void sendString(printString ps)
      {
         ps("Hello World");
      }
      static void Main(string[] args)
      {
         printString ps1 = new printString(WriteToScreen);
         printString ps2 = new printString(WriteToFile);
         sendString(ps1);
         sendString(ps2);
         Console.ReadKey();
      }
   }
}
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Output:

The String is: Hello World

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