ATP Full Form in Biology | Full Form of ATP in Biology
ATP Full Form - Adenosine Triphosphate
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- ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate. It a high-energy molecule found within the cells of the physical body, animals, plants, etc.
- It's capable of storing and supplying the energy needed by cells. So, it's commonly referred to as the energy currency of the cell.
- The human body is made from different types of cells. Each kind of cells performs a selected function that helps organisms to perform tasks necessary for survival.
- For ex, nerve cells communicate messages to the brain and permit us to think, make decisions and more.
- Similarly, muscle cells help us to supply force and motion, maintain posture, and contraction of organs, and more. Cells need the energy to perform these tasks, which is provided by ATP.
- The food that we eat is gradually oxidized within the cells and energy is released, which is used to provide the ATP in order that a continuous supply of ATP is maintained.
- In simple words, we store the energy obtained from the breakdown of food as ATP. Similarly, plants store energy produced during photosynthesis in ATP molecules
Structure of ATP
Struct Adenosine Triphosphate
- ATP may be a nucleotide which is made from an adenosine molecule (adenine base attached to a ribose sugar), which is further connected to 3 phosphate groups by phosphoanhydride bonds. So, it's three main parts: adenine (a nitrogenous base), a sugar (ribose), and a triphosphate (three phosphate groups). These parts are connected together into one molecule through condensation reactions.
- When just one phosphate group is attached, this compound is understood as adenosine monophosphate (amp), when another group is attached, it becomes adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and when the third one is added, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is made.
- The phosphate groups are attached to at least one another by phosphoanhydride bonds. When energy is required by the cells, the third phosphate group is removed, and only two phosphate groups left behind.
- For ex, during hydrolysis, the enzyme ATPase hydrolyses the bond between the second and third phosphate group in ATP. We will say that the ATP molecule is hydrolysed into ADP (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate ion with the release of chemical energy.
- Similarly, energy is released when another phosphate is removed from ADP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is made.
- However, amp are often converted into ADP or ATP through new phosphoanhydride bonds to store energy. So, in a cell, ATP, amp and ADP are continuously interconverted through biological reactions.
- ATP is consistently consumed and regenerated to make sure that an organism can function and survive.
How is ATP produced ?
Adenosine Triphosphate Molecules
- ATP is produced during cellular respiration that happens within the cytosol and mitochondria of a cell. This process begins with glycolysis and followed by aerobic respiration, which comprises the krebs' cycle and therefore the electron transport chain. So, there are total three steps that make a complete of 36 ATP molecules: 2 ATP molecules are produced in glycolysis, 2 are produced within the krebs cycle and 32 are produced by the electron transport chain.
- ATP is additionally produced in plants through photosynthesis during which light and dark reactions occur. Within the photochemical reaction, the energy of the sun is converted into chemical energy within the kind of ATP through the phosphorylation of ADP, which combat a phosphate group to become ATP.
- In the dark reaction of photosynthesis, which is called the calvin cycle, an equivalent ATP is used to synthesize glucose needed by plants to survive.
- ATP is used in several ways, and for thousands of various purposes in humans, animals, plants, etc.
- ATP moves through diffusion (from high concentration to low concentration) to the world where it's required for energy, and therefore the energy is released when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups breaks down and a phosphoryl group is removed.