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SGPT Full Form - Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase

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 Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase

Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase

  • Full Form of SGPT stands for Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase.
  • It’s an enzyme which is now called Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It’s produced by the liver.
  • So, it's found in high concentrations in liver cells and in moderate concentrations in kidney cells and in low concentrations in heart, pancreas, spleen, red blood cells and skeletal muscles.
  • It is released into the blood when the liver or the other organs that contain ALT are damaged. So, whenever there's damage to liver, the amount of ALT may increase the maximum amount as 50 times than the normal levels in the blood.
  • The ALT test may be a sensitive test for evaluating liver function. It checks and measures damage to the liver.
  • It’s also done to see medical treatments that will affect the liver. ALT is a simple test in which a small amount of blood is taken from a vein in your arm with a needle and collected in the tube then sent to a lab.
  • ALT is also a region of a gaggle of tests called LFTs (liver function tests) used to test liver function.
  • The ALT test is completed if a patient has symptoms of liver disease:
    • Jaundice
    • Dark Urine
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Pain in the right upper quadrant of your abdomen
 symptoms of liver disease

symptoms of liver disease

Some of the common reasons for a higher than normal ALT level are given below

  • Liver damage from an acute virus infection like hepatitis.
  • Liver damage caused by medicines you've got taken.
  • Drinking too much alcohol.
  • If one has mononucleosis.
  • Liver or gall bladder disease like gallstones, liver cancer or liver failure.
  • Muscle injury.
  • Taking medicine that affects the test result.

Risks associated with an ALT test

  • Although ALT is a simple blood test, it should involve a few risks. For example, it should cause bruising in the area where the needle was inserted.
  • However, bruising are often reduced by applying pressure to the site of injection for a few minutes after the needle is removed. In some cases, some other complications may occur, such as:
    • Excessive bleeding at the site of injection.
    • Blood may accumulate beneath your skin, which is known as a hematoma.
    • An infection at the site of injection.
    • Fainting on seeing the blood.

ALT test results

  • The normal level of ALT in blood for males ranges from 29 to 33 units per liter and for females 19 to 25 units per liter.
  • This value will be affected by the age of the patient. If the levels of ALT are above this range, there may be a liver disorder.


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