GIS Full Form | Full Form of GIS




GIS Full Form - Geographic Information System

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 Geographic Information System

Geographic Information System

  • GIS stands for Geographic Information System.
  • It's a system designed to collect, analyze, manipulate, manage, and display all kinds of geographical and spatial data and information.
  • It allows you to perform spatial analysis and manage large data and display the information in maps or graphical form for analysis and presentation.
  • These benefits make GIS a valuable tool to see spatial data or to build decision support systems for a corporation.
  • A GIS stores data on geographical features and their characteristics. These features are referred to as points, lines, areas, or raster images.
  • For ex, In the map of a city, road data are often stored as lines, and boundaries are often stored as areas, and aerial photos are often stored as raster images.
  • GIS store information using spatial indices that permits identifying the features located in any arbitrary region on a map.
  • For ex, a GIS can quickly identify and map all of the locations within a specified radius of some point, or all of the streets or roads that undergo a territory.
  • GIS provides the potential to relate previously unrelated information, through the utilization of location because the "key index variable".
  • Locations and extents that are found within the Earth's spacetime, are ready to be recorded through the date and time of occurrence, along side x, y, and z coordinates; representing, longitude (x), latitude (y), and elevation (z). All Earth-based, spatial-temporal, location and extent references, should be relatable to at least one another, and ultimately, to a "real" physical location or extent.
  • This key characteristic of GIS, has begun to open new avenues of scientific inquiry and studies.
  • Some data are often spatial (locations on the earth), coupled with tabular data (attribute data). Attribute data generally refers to additional information about each of the spatial features.
  • For ex, the particular location of the hospitals during a geographic area is spatial data. Additional data like hospital name, level of treatment, and bed capacity are the attribute data. So, GIS may be a combination of those two data types that makes it an efficient problem-solving tool through spatial analysis.
  • GIS not only tells the situation of features but also provides additional information associated with a feature such as:
    • Relationship of a feature with other features
    • Where the most or least of a feature exists
    • The density of features during a specific space
    • What is happening inside a neighborhood of interest (AOI)
    • What is happening nearby some features
    • How a neighborhood has changed over the years
  • For example, a rare species of a plant is found in three different places, and spatial analysis shows that the plants are only on the south-facing slopes above an elevation of 1,500 feet and obtain quite fifteen inches of rain per annum.
  • So, with the help of GIS maps, we will display all locations within the area that have similar conditions and may search for this plant species.
  • Similarly, we will determine the locations of farms that are using a specific fertilizer, and therefore the location of streams and rainfall to find out which streams may carry the fertilizer downstream.


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