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QUAD Full Form - Quadrilateral Security Dialogue

 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue

Quadrilateral Security Dialogue

  • The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD, also referred to as the Quad) is an informal strategic forum between the US, Japan, Australia and India that's maintained by semi-regular summits, information exchanges and military drills between member countries.
  • The forum was initiated as a dialogue in 2007 by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan, with the support of vice chairman Dick Cheney of the US, Prime Minister John Howard of Australia and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India.
  • The dialogue was paralleled by joint military exercises of an unprecedented scale, titled Exercise Malabar.
  • The diplomatic and military arrangement was widely viewed as a response to increased Chinese economic and military power, and therefore the Chinese government skilled the Quad by issuing formal diplomatic protests to its members.
  • The first iteration of the Quad ceased to exist following the withdrawal of Australia in February 2008, shortly after Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd took office, after a joint naval exercise between the Quad and Singapore drew diplomatic protests from China.
  • Other reasons for the discontinuation of the Quad were that in late 2007, more Beijing-friendly Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda replaced Abe in Japan and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's state visit to China in January 2008, during which he stated that the India-China relationship was a priority.
  • Under Rudd and his successor Julia Gillard, military cooperation between the US and Australia was enhanced, resulting in the location of US Marines near Darwin, Australia, near the Timor Sea and Lombok Strait. India, Japan, and therefore the United States continued to carry joint naval exercises through Malabar till 2019. In 2020 Australia joined the Malabar exercise after invite from India making it the first time all members of the Quad are going to be engaged militarily.
  • This was after negotiations which started during the 2017 ASEAN Summits, with Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull of Australia, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan, Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India, and President Donald Trump of the US agreeing in Manila to revive the security pact.


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