CPU Full Form | What is the Full Form of CPU

CPU Full Form - Central Processing Unit

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 Central Processing Unit

Central Processing Unit

  • CPU stands for Central Processing Unit.
  • It's also referred to as a brain of the computer.
  • It carries out instructions and computer programs and performs all the basic arithmetical and logical operations.
  • CPU is installed within the motherboard on a selected area called CPU socket.
  • Traditionally the term CPU refers to a processor which includes control unit and arithmetical logical unit. Central Processing Unit (CPU) = Arithmetical Logical Unit (ALU) + Control Unit (CU)
 Cpu Accumulator

Cpu Accumulator

Components of CPUs

  • Arithmetical Logic Unit :
    • This is often a key part of the CPU. This is often responsible of performing all the logical and arithmetical operations.
  • Control Unit :
    • It's the most important a part of the CPU. It instructs the entire computing system to hold out a particular task.
  • Registers :
    • Registers are the special type of memory devices. They store the data that need to be processed and already processed by the processor.

Memory or Storage Unit

  • This unit can store instructions, data, and intermediate results.
  • This unit supplies information to other units of the pc when needed.
  • It's also referred to as internal storage unit or the most memory or the first storage or Random Access Memory ( RAM ).
  • Its size affects speed, power, and capability.
  • Primary memory and secondary memory are two sorts of memories within the computer.
  • Functions of the memory unit are −
    • It stores all the data and therefore the instructions required for processing.
    • It stores intermediate results of processing.
    • It stores the final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.
    • All inputs and outputs are transmitted through the most memory.

Types of CPUs

  • CPUs are often divided in three major categories :
    • Transistor CPUs
    • Small Scale Integration CPUs
    • Large Scale Integration CPUs


  • The term CPU was first used in computer industry within the early 1960's.
  • Initially the term CPU was used to define a device for software execution and it came with the advent of the stored program computer.
  • A number of the important events related to history of CPU are as follows:
    • Silicon, the essential component of processors, was discovered by Baron Jons Jackob in 1823.
    • In 1903, Tesla patented the electrical logic circuits (gates or switches).
    • In 1947, The first transistor was invented by John Barden, Walter Brattain and Shockley at the Bell Laboratories.
    • In 1958, Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby developed the first microcircuit.
    • On 15 November 1971, Intel introduced the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004.
    • In March 1991, AMD introduced the AM386 microprocessor family.
    • On 22 March 1993, Intel released the Pentium processor, a 60 mhz processor with 3.1 million transistors.
    • On 4 January 2000, Intel released the Celeron 553 mhz bus processor.
    • On 22 April 2006, Intel released the Core 2 Duo processor E6320.
    • In November 2008, Intel released the first Core i7 Desktop processors.
    • In January 2010, Intel released the first Core i5 Mobile processors (i5-430M and i5-520E).

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