RNA Full Form | Full Form of RNA




RNA Full Form - Ribonucleic Acid

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 Ribonucleic Acid

Ribonucleic Acid

  • RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid. It's one among the major biological macromolecules that's essential for all known forms of life. It performs various important biological roles related to protein synthesis like transcription, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.

Structure of RNA

 Structure of RNA

Structure of RNA

  • It is one stranded molecule composed of ribonucleotides. Like DNA, it's three components:
    • A Nitrogenous Base : It are often adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) or uracil (U).
    • A Five-Carbon Sugar : It's ribose.
    • A Phosphate Group : It's attached to the 3' position of 1 ribose and 5' position of the next ribose.
  • The nucleotides of RNA are joined to at least one another through covalent bonds that exist between the phosphate of 1 molecule and sugar of another molecule.
  • This linkage between nucleotides is named phosphodiester linkage or bond.
  • RNA isn't always linear; it can fold to form a complex three dimensional structure called hairpin loops.
  • During this structure, nitrogenous bases bind to at least one another, i.e. Adenine pairs with uracil (A-U) and guanine pairs with cytosine (G-C).
  • Hairpin loops are commonly found in messenger (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA).

Types of RNA

There are mainly three kinds of RNA molecule which are as follows:

 Types of RNA

Types of RNA

  • Messenger RNA (m RNA) :
    • It plays an important role in DNA transcription; a process in which m RNA is transcribed from one strand of DNA, so its base sequence is complementary to DNA template strand. It allows it to hold the genetic information from the DNA within the form of series of three-base code which specifies a specific amino acid.
  • Transfer RNA (t RNA) :
    • It's the smallest of the three kinds of RNA molecules. It always has 74 to 95 nucleotide residues. It transfers the amino acids from cytoplasm to the protein synthesizing machinery, so it's called t RNA.
  • Ribosomal RNA (r RNA) :
    • It constitutes around 85% of the whole RNA of the cell. It plays an important role in protein synthesis because it interacts with mRNA and tRNA at various stages of translation (protein synthesis).


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