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DHCP Full Form - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

  • DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
  • It's also referred to as RFC 2131. It's a network protocol that permits a server to automatically assign an IP address from a specified range of numbers (a scope) to a computer or device when it's connected to a given network. So, it's a protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network. DHCP automatically permits a node or device to be configured automatically, so a network administrator isn't required


  • DHCP was used for the first time in 1993. It had been built on the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) of 1985.
  • The definition of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is in RFC 2131 and may be found under the UDP port numbers 67 and 68.

What Does DHCP Do ?

  • It controls the establishment of all the devices added to the network or dropped from the network.
  • It maintains the IP address of the host through a DHCP server.
  • It informs the DHCP server when a node or client, which is configured to figure with DHCP, is added to the network. The server responds by providing an IP address to the client/node.

How DHCP Works ?

  • In small businesses or small networks, the router acts as a DHCP server. Whereas, in large networks, one computer may act as the DHCP server.
  • In simple words, a tool or client requests an IP address from the router or host, which assigns an IP address available at that moment to the client to enable it to communicate on the network. So, when a tool is connected to a DHCP server, it sends an invitation to the server, called a DHCPDISCOVER request.
  • After receiving the request, the server finds an IP address for the device and offers it to the client with a DHCPOFFER packet.
  • After receiving the offer, the device responds to the DHCP server with a DHCPREQUEST packet to point out that it agrees to accept it.
  • Then, the server confirms by sending an ACK (acknowledgement) that this IP address has been provided to the present device and also specifies the duration that the device can use the address before getting a new IP address.
  • If the server cannot provide or doesn't have an IP address for the device, it'll send a NACK (negative acknowledgement).
 How to Works on  Dhcp

How to Works on Dhcp


  • Easy use and configuration, because the network parameters need to be entered only once. Furthermore, the existing IP address is used optimally. Because of the frequently changed locations, it's almost impossible that mobile devices configure themselves constantly. Here, the automated DHCP system offers the advantage of uncomplicated and simple applicability.


  • The problem with DHCP is that clients accept any server. Accordingly, when another server is within the vicinity, the client may connect with this server, and this server could send invalid data to the client.
  • Security of MAC address is additionally not provided.

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