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CERN Full Form - European Organization for Nuclear Research

 European Organization for Nuclear Research

European Organization for Nuclear Research

  • The European Organization for Nuclear Research is a European research organization that operates the most important particle physics laboratory within the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco-Swiss border and has 23 member states.
  • Israel is that the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is a politician United Nations Observer.
  • The acronym CERN is additionally used to ask the laboratory, which in 2016 had 2,500 scientific, technical, and administrative staff members, and hosted about 12,000 users. Within the same year, CERN generated 49 petabytes of data.
  • CERN's main function is to supply the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research - as a result, numerous experiments are constructed at CERN through international collaborations.
  • The most site at Meyrin hosts an outsized computing facility, which is primarily used to store and analyse data from experiments, also as simulate events.
  • Researchers need remote access to those facilities, therefore the lab has historically been a serious wide area network hub. CERN is additionally the birthplace of the world Wide Web.

History

  • The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.
  • The acronym CERN originally represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952.
  • The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the present Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954.
  • According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could became the awkward OERN, and Werner Heisenberg said that this might "still be CERN albeit the name is [not]".
  • CERN's first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. Edoardo Amaldi was the overall secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the primary Director-General (1954) was Felix Bloch.
  • The laboratory was originally dedicated to the study of atomic nuclei, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned mainly with the study of interactions between subatomic particles.
  • Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN is usually mentioned as the European laboratory for particle physics , which better describes the research being performed there.

Founding members

  • At the sixth session of the CERN Council, which happened in Paris from 29 June - 1 July 1953, the convention establishing the organization was signed, subject to ratification, by 12 states.
  • The convention was gradually ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands , Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the uk , and Yugoslavia.

Scientific achievements

  • Several important achievements in particle physics are made through experiments at CERN. They include:
    • 1973 : The discovery of neutral currents within the Gargamelle bubble chamber.
    • 1983 : The discovery of W and Z bosons within the UA1 and UA2 experiments.
    • 1989 : The determination of the amount of light neutrino families at the large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) operating on the Z boson peak.
    • 1995 : The primary creation of antihydrogen atoms within the PS210 experiment.
    • 1999 : The discovery of direct CP violation within the NA48 experiment.
    • 2010 : The isolation of 38 atoms of antihydrogen.
    • 2011 : Maintaining antihydrogen for over 15 minutes.
    • 2012 : A boson with mass around 125 gev/c2 according to the long-sought Higgs boson.
    • In September 2011, CERN attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of possibly faster-than-light neutrinos. Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS synchronization cable.
    • The 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that resulted within the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, especially the multiwire proportional chamber". The 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism within the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments.


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